Korsun-Shevchenkivskiy State Historical and Cultural Preserve

Palace ensemble

Palace ensemble in the town of Korsun-Shevchenkivskiy (architects J.-A. Myunts , J. Lindsay) on several islands on the river Ros was founted in times of Korsun starosta of Polish prince S. Poniatowsky as a summer countryside residence of the in 1782 It was brooder during the time of the new owners – Princes Lopukhin and Lopukhin-Demidov . In the second half of the XIX century. the palace ensemble was one of the richest in Europe. Objects of palace ensemble hearth are presented according to chronological principle.

Художнягалерея Three storied outduilding Світлина Ірини Коваленко Photo by Iryna Kovalenko

Three storied outduilding

Three storied outduilding (1782 -1783, completion – after 1845 to 1847 and during after 1867 to 1873). In its original form – a one-story building, maintained in the classical style (architect – J.-A. Munz). The building is rectangular in plan, with a hipped roof, the side facades of which were decorated with wooden phials, typical of the Gothic style. Until 1845 the one-story outbuilding was connected to the palace by an order gallery.
Approximately it is possible to determine the dating of changes in the outbuilding only by the time of the appearance of four projections, which were not completed at the same time, as well as the second and third floors of the building.
The first, probably, was the projection on the left flank that was completed or built after 1845 to 1847 on the site of the former three-storied gallery entrance to the order gallery. The risalit was decorated with a portico supported by six wooden columns and an open terrace at the level of the third floor. With the completion of this risalit, the side palace facade of the outbuilding was quite richly decorated and actually became the front facade of the third floor. Its architecture echoes the architecture of the side facade of the palace. It is decorated with four blades which “support” multyprofiled cornice, vertically divide facade and visually increase the height. In the places over juts the cornice imitated capitals of the columns. Above the twin windows and doors witch have ogive completions and framed by on archivolt, there are rectangular edges, decorated with stylized flowers in the corners. Huge window and door openings visually facilitate perception of volume of an outbuilding. Side facade of the building completes the triangular pediment with a three-section window with a lanced ending, framed by an archivolt. Along the perimeter of the pediment is decorated with a drawn multi-profile cornice. The ridge the roof crowns the phial.
At the completion of the second projection in the facade, located on the site of an existing single-storey portico with columns manor-house it was considerably strengthen interior walls. The architectural decoration of this risalit became an immitated simulated portico, which rested on six wooden half-columns protruding from the plane of the wall of the third floor. Between half-columns there were three windows. Behind this ledge, a part of the outbuilding until 1847 still remained one-story. The completed ledges on the level of the third floor were connected by an open terrace, which was supported by five high-rise columns.
Joint two risalits visually limited the overall size the part of the outbuilding, and after superstructure by second and third floors of the main facade of the outbuilding that overlooked the square between building almost repeated the Palace shape P-shaped in plan. Bringing construction of the outbuilding in height was in such way so that the level of the second floor was raised to the height of the sole of the front first floor of the palace, and the level of its cornice the roof ridge of the outbuilding nose.
On the left flank of the building, at place of the entrance vestibule, after 1861 the third risalit appeared. It had a flat roof, the corners of which – the columns and with onion-like finishing and railings, leaned obviously at the classic balusters. Along the perimeter of the roof completion – entire barriers in the form of kokosnyk. From the completed risalit through the two-field door there was an exit to open terraces of the third floor.
The last, fourth risalit on the right flank of the building appeared till 1873. At the corners of the ledge completed speech on the third floor level there were dual columns (now there are none).
The roofs of wooden ledges finished by triangular pediments, with three windows of the canced form, the average of which was larger and by size fialas. Perhaps after 1960s windows on in the facade pediments were replaced in foursections, square by shape, which had broken the architectural harmony of the building.
The rear facade of the outbuilding has only window openings of the level of each of the three floors. Window openings on the first and second floors are symmetrical, while on the third floor they are not. A part of the third floor between the first and third risalits has six dual and one single window, while between the third and fourth risalits – single. Visually it’s noticeable that a part of the wall on the third floor on the left flank is pulled out the level of the existing walls of the first and second floors, which suggests that this part was completed without proper architectural oversight, and possibly without any project.
The horizontal dividing of the wall surface of the side, river, facade is achieved through nine windows which also provide corresponding symmetry. Among them there are three false windows; one of them is implicitly authentic.
Window openings of the first and second floors are rectangular. Their frame the same, as bordering doorways, which is made of lime and clay, creates peculiar stucco decoration. Third floor window openings, dual and single, have a form of arrow-shaped arches and accented by rectangular edges; the third floor of the fourth risalit from the side of the inter-building square is decorated with a three-part Venetian window.
The decorative element of the main, back and side, river , facades became multi-profile eaves under the roof and stepped – interfloor.
A three-storey wing conducted pre- and superstructure remains rectangular in plan, with performances on the main facade.
Planning of building is different on all floors. On the first one it’s mostly endlade corridor in the risalits ; on the second – enfilade and mostly corridor with a bilateral arrangement of rooms; on the third – enfilade on the perimeter of the building.
The art gallery is on the third floor.

The Order Gallery.

The Order Gallery (three-storied entrance building – 1782–1783, transitional gallery – until 1787). The author of the project probably was J.-A. Munz. It consisted of two parts: a three-storied entrance building, which was connected to a one-storey outbuilding, and a transitional gallery, which stood on a brick plastered foundation, the height of which depended on the relief, and natural stone. The gallery had 18 (19) pairs of columns supporting the gable roof.
For unknown reasons, the transitional gallery connecting the one-story outbuilding and the palace was destroyed by 1845. The three-storiedentrance building remained, to which the second and third floors of the outbuilding were added.

Кухонний флігель

The Kitchen outbuilding.

It was built before 1787, the probable author of the project is J.-A. Munz. The building underwent significant destruction during the Ukrainian Revolution of 1917–1921. The facades of the outbuilding acquired their original appearance in 1976.
The building is laid of brick, one-storey, rectangular in plan, with completion to the rear facade, has window and door openings of rectangular shape, gabled roof. Visual symmetry of the main facade gives risalit ending by a mezzanine with three windows side-lights and profiled cornice that defines a triangular pediment of risalit.
Under part of the building there is a stone basement. It has a cross vault with the original brickwork, which is now plastered , and per two windows in the basement of the main and rear facades of the building. The roof is pitched, the window openings are rectangular.
The location of the rooms is enfilade now.
The and Historical Museum is located in the building, and in the basement there is a cafe-bar “Prince’s court”.

Front stable.

t was built before 1787, the probable author of the project is J.-A. Munz. Stone-story building in the background is an irregular quadrangle ( after 1960-s. The main facade was completed by two volumes), built on the foundation of rough-slone in some places up to 2.5 m. The roof is four-sloped. At first the window openings had a semicircular shape, now – rectangular. Internal planning – corridor , with a one-sided location of the premises.
As the building had an economic purpose, the decorative function performed only vertical projections (blades) on the façade wall that overlooked the front yard, and on the side corners of the eastern and western facades, giving by this the building a kind of peculiar rhythm, and profiled cornice with clearly defined contours (pulled) under the roof.

Orangery.

It was built not far from the Ros arm until 1787 as a stable. It was rebuilt as a greenhouses by 1845. It had “large Venetian windows, stuck of models arms and emblems and ornaments on the walls, hanging under the roof the Brabant towers”. The author is an unknown Lviv architect .
The greenhouse consisted of three parts: tower entrance, large and small halls. The tower-entrance (“Venetian tower”) was quadrangular in plan (2.4 m x 3.5 m), decorated at the corners with pilasters, above which were semi-hanging (on brackets) round turrets-dungeons. Each tower has four narrow windows of lancet form and was crowned by a tent roof with a spire. The walls of the entrance tower had a jagged end. The top belt of each four wals was decorated with an arcature frieze under which windows-sidelights were housed. Between pilasters of south and west facades of the entrance-tower, there were large Venetian windows. From both sides (of the palace and the river) there were porches, which were led by seven steps.
Along the central axis, from the east the walls of the large hall closely laid to the entrance hall, northern and eastern parts of which were bricked up (perhaps these were the walls remained of the stable). Probably, in 1867-1869 had already been built the small hall of the greenhouse, which height was almost half the height of the great hall. Both halls of the greenhouse were covered with glazed up with frames that were rising, which made it possible to regulate the temperature in the lodgins. The frame constructions were based on a brick wall that ended with cogged edges. They were both an ornament and a fence of the observation place arranged along the crest of the great hall. The exit to the observation place was on the upper level of the entrance tower. In front of the small hall there was an open terrace decorated with marble vases on special pedestals. Completely destroyed in 1949.

Palace Фото Олександра Проскуріна Палац Світлина Ірини Коваленко Світлина Ірини Коваленко Світлина Ірини Коваленко Світлина Ірини Коваленко Світлина Ірини Коваленко Palace. Photo by Iryna Kovalenko

Palace.

Palace (1787–1789, additions: first half of the XIXth, second half of the XIXth century). At the highest point of the southern part ofnoyi the island for Prince Stanislaw Poniatowski at the proect of Jan Lindsay there was erected the building at that time of unusual architecture of which became the dominant of the palace ensemble. By assertion Warsaw University of professor, the investigator of history of ancient castles Tadeusz Stefan Jaroszewskya, it was the first building on the lands of the Rich Pospolyta, projected with elements of Neogothic and «mauresgue».
The palace construction of without basement premises was carried out taking into account the granite island relief. At present, it is impossible to reproduce the original appearance of the facade of the palace in full. The oldest iconographic source is a lithograph of John Lindsay’s watercolor “View of the palace complex in the town of Korsun. 1789”, which depicts the rear and side facades. As it can be seen from the lithograph, an important architectural element of the palace are the risalits. It can also be assumed that the palace facades were also decorated with decorative elements, which have survived up to this day. So on the facades there visible horizontal thrusts, which divide the planes of walls on the second floor and combined with sills. The second floor also has vertical thrusts which underline volume pilasters. The first and second floors of the palace visually separate interfloor horizontal cornice.
Changes in the appearance of the palace began from 1840s. First of all, on the flat roof of the first floor, located between the projections of the rear facade, a glass-covered terrace was arranged, which was called “Winter Garden”. The terrace was destroyed, probably in the 1920s. The roof became sloping and a decorative fence was installed on its edge.
The side yard facade of the palace had undergone minor changes by 1845 the destruction of the gallery it become completely opened.
The palace underwent significant changes in the period from 1845 till 1847. Its corners were decorated with wedge-shaped “zacomary” nets, which at that time were an integral part of the so-called pseudo-Russian style. Their tympani were decorated with an arched frieze of stucco round rosettes of two types, framing “zacomary” in the form of continuous chains. The rosettes looked like a stylized flower, the round shape of which was perceived as a symbol of the sun. Octagonal wooden belvedere towers topped with merlons “grew” from “zacomary”. On the seven sides of each belvedere tower there are windows with rectangular weaves. From the eighth – the door leading to the transitions on the roof and the other three towers. Open wood with delicate transition metal wrought iron balusters that overlap with the main facade fence terraces were constructed on the crests gable cut overhead and roof.
After as the side, park, facade of the palace 1870 had undergone some changes. Above the windows, which were on both sides of those times exit the canopy was arranged, the edges of which – two tent shape canopies. They emerged in the 1950s.
Significant changes that took place in the appearance of the main facade of the palace, was completed in 1873 live walled tambour instead of the existing imitated portico, which located on the main axis of the building divided by pilasters facets. This part of the facade has a rich decor. Around the main entrance two-field door of the tambour there are half-columns of the Corinthian order. Above the front door there is a window with a figured weave, which resembles a rose flower or a star, which in architecture is called a “Gothic rose”, and a floral ornament in the style of “arabesque”. Along with the completion of the tambour both hands on it, on the level of the first floor were built outdoor terraces, outlet to which was from the tambour. Terraces are fenced with metal figured balusters; the oak railings of the balustrades were fastened in marble columns.
The gabled roof of the tambour on the level of the second floor of the main façade was enclosed by a balustrade divided by brick faceted columns covered with metal faceted dragged bulbous (onion-like) heads with decorative wooden embossed cones. To some extent, it is a copy of an unknown architect designs Moscow-Suzdal school building in the tambour outfitting.
To preserve the main feature of the facade – the classic symmetry – the architect used false windows on both floors, which in the interiors provided additional useful area of ​​the blank wall. Window openings, bordered with Cover plates (frames) and joined by window rollers, crown sash Lucky and lancet archivolts with decorative small weights.
White and dark gray marble was used to decorate the palace.
The palace has an authentic planning – an enfilade scheme. Exicting symmetry plan of the first floor of the palace sustained under the two main compositional axes that are crossed along the center of the state hall. Enfilades of rooms located on the perimeter of the main hall, end with a window or a dooropening. Better perception of the enfilade promotes alternating small and large rooms, each with height – 4.6 m. The wall planes are completed by profiled, and in some rooms – with ornamented cornice moldings, which gives surfaces a closed space. The color scheme of the interior remains unknown.
The highlight of the palace is a two-storey ceremonial hall. T.C. Yaroshevskiy expressed rather attractive opinion that the author of the interior of the hall was a famous Scottish architect, a prominent representative of British classicism of the eighteenth century Robert Adam. The interior of the ceremonial hall is determined in the strict canons of classicism. Its area of ​​200.0 m2 with height of 9.4 m is illuminated by ten windows, which are at the level of the second floor on two opposite sides (five on each). Additional natural light penetrates through four doorways, located on the main axis of the palace. Two of them are placed in exedra, which is an element of ancient Byzantine temple architecture, and the other two – in the butt-end walls. The plane of walls is limited by richly developed multi-profiled ornamented cornice which tightly leans to the ceiling. It is decorated with rosettes placed in squares, between the modillions, which “support” the remote plate of the upper cornice. The intermediate cornice, which consists of several parts, is also multi-profiled: a frieze made of flutes, cogged-edges, which once were probably gilded. Above cogged-edges is pulled the profile, decorated with small leaves (this ornament decoration repeated in many rooms). A small carried out plate of cornice also is decorated with ornaments in the form of petty leaves. Above the intermediate cornice there is a less decorated cornice, adjacent to the stucco baguettes in the windows at the top and running along the whole perimeter. The wall planes divide into parts the horizontal thrust, combined with stucco moldings made of windows.
On the longitudinal axis of the end sides of the hall, Ionic columns and semi-columns are the compositional centers, which limit the doorways. At the lower part they have canelures. The capital with volutes and an impost instead of an architrave an intermediate cornice passing on the hall perimeter, visually separating the first floor from the second one and reducing its height. The upper part above doorways of butt-end walls is filled with classic head molding in a triangular pediment decorated with carvings on the perimeter. The door openings are accentuated by ornamented (leaves, plait) platbands.
At the butt-end walls, over the eaves on the second floor, there are choirs for musicians.
Among the most decorated rooms of the palace apartment now there is vestybule number 1, modern halls №3, architect style of which decor is closer to neogothic, and №4.
On the ground floor of the palace there is Museum of the History of the f Korsun-Shevchenkivskiy Battle.

The main office of the estate manager.

It was built on the rocky bank of the River Ros to the left of the bridge leading to the modern Kotsyubynsky Island. The beginning of construction – until 1789. Originally it was only a one-story building, which in size has remained unchanged to this day. The roof was pitched with four auditory semicircular windows. Window openings have retained a semicircular completition. Extensions to the one-storey building were repeatedly made, which gave the building the appearance of incompleteness.
The existing two-storey part of the building was erected at the end of the XIXth century, not earlier than in 1885. At the level of the first and second floors of the completition main facade there were Venetian three-parts and one-part windows, and two one-part windows on the rear facade; on the side, north-east facade on the second floor – three one-part windows (one of them is now bricked up). There were also Venetian windows on the gables of the main and rear facades. All two-storey window openings had a semicircular completition. Windows of second floor building and the pediments decorated with rectangular edges, first – relief archivolt. Framed gable is pulled by the profile cornice eaves, the same cornice separates the first floor from the second completion.
Today it is a residential building, an object of communal property of the town.

Manege.

Erected after 1787 – until 1789; completions: the end of the XIX century. – the beginning of the XX century, the middle of the XX century. The author of the riding arena could be both Jean-Anri Munz and Jan Lindsay.
The original part of the brick arena has elements of classicism and neo-Gothic style . The main facade had an asymmetrical appearance. Its wall was reinforced by two buttresses that began from the top of the cornice. Between them there were two rectangular doors and window openings, which height was at one level. Their frame is made of brick.

Probably in the XIX century the volume on the right flank of the building with a risalit and a symmetrical main facade was completed. Along its central axis there was a doorway, which was laid in the 1960s. An bothsides of there are rectangular window openings. Baguettes of windows and doors are brick, above them there are triangular brick sandryky. The corners risalit of are decorated with pilastras over them – octagonal columns with rectangular cone-shaped end.
Lateral, park, façade of arena is divided vertically into three parts, symmetrically concerning to the transverse axis of completion. In the center there is a rather wide entrance, on both sides of which there are triple rectangular window openings in the border of the three-dimensional brick relief.
In the 1950s and 1960s. to the left flang of the buildings were made completion. In the same years, the main facade of the central part of the arena experienced some changes.

Lutheran Chapel Lutheran Chapel Lutheran Chapel

Lutheran Chapel.

Built in 1835 on a rocky shore of the river Ros arm to the west of the palace. The chapel was projected in the Neogothic style by an unknown architect. The building is almost square in plan. Its corners are accentuated by rectangular quadrangular projections, limited by semi-columns of the Doric order, on which the triangular pediments rested, and ended in prick pointed turrets. Each salience on the larger planes had two lancet deepening’s, located one under the other, and over them – false-round-illuminator window. The south-eastern and north-western façades, ending in triangular pediments, had lancet windows with lancet interweaves in the upper part, their decorative framing was made of brick, and in the lower part there were two paired windows also arrow-shaped without window fillings; the south-western facade had no windows. On the northern facade of the building there was a doorwayin the form of lancet arches, over which there was Latin inscription date of the construction of the chapel – MDCCCXXXV (1835). Over the door lancet window with arched weave. Window and door openings had elements of lanceolate style.
On the roof, which had a complex spatial structure of coatings, there were triple gables with lance arches from which came the sharp spiers. In the center of the roof – a cone-shaped complection with a cross.
A marble throne was erected in the chapel , on which a large golden cross was fixed. Eventually chapel received informal name: the Chapel of Countess de la Ferrone, after Viscountess Laferrone Alexandra , daughter of the Brightest Princess Jeanette Lopukhina. The building was demolished by floods in 1942.

Swiss house.

Built on the so-called Swiss island until 1845, designed by an unknown architect in the style of a chalet. The building is two-storey, wooden, rectangular in plan . It was decorated with terraces with wooden openwork barriers that encircled it around the perimeter, now they have survived only from the main, rear and side, palace, facades on the level of the second floor and the attic. The main facade has two tiers of galleries.
The rectangular windows had paneled shutters, which have not survived. The high gable roof, the edges of which act much ledged over the walls, well protects the house from weather conditions.
In 1950–1960, verandas were added to the house on both sides.
The building is a unique park structure that is an integral part of the surrounding landscape of the island.

Stable-Carriage.

Built before 1845 as a separate building. The author of the project is unknown. Built of brick, in plan – rectangular. Window openings were of lancet form, before World War II the windows of rectangular from were installed. The roof is pitched.
The inner space vertically, in proportions of about 1:2, was separated by a brick wall. The inner wall had doorways, that is, these could be the entrances to the logs. The current internal planning – corridor, when the redevelopment of the building took place, is unknown.

Gateway.

Open space between the kitchen and the stable-carriage was filled with the gateway, built in the period after 1845 – to 1847 in the Romanesque style, although in its architecture can be traced features, inherent neogothic. The gate has not undergone temporary changes. It is a symmetrical structure that is visually divided into two tiers, separated by a multi-profile elongated cornice. The first tier of the building, besides towers and rizalyts, is decorated with quad rustication, that emphasizes “medievalism” of the building, the second is plastered. The walls end with a decorative pointed arched frieze and are topped with merlons, and the towers are topped with merlons with machicolations.
The main façade of gates flanked by round towers in the plan, single lancet windows are framed by brick. On the second floor – two paired lancet windows with decorative frame, between which, on the vertical axis facade was there modeled cartouche with the coat of arms of the princes Lopukhins, and then – the Lopukhins-Demidovs.

Rear facade gate is symmetrical about its vertical axis and its second tier is accented with three windows of lancet form.
The vault of the through passage has a form of lancet arch which is decorated on both sides with a profiled archivolt with decorative weights. There are two symmetrical niches in the passage, decorated with ledges, in which kerosene lamps (extinguishers) were probably installed.
The internal layout of the third floor of the building is a corridor, there were five rooms (now two of them are combined into one) and two corridors. The third floor and roof of the gate were winding wooden staircase from the left tower. In the right tower there is a room next to which there is a wooden staircase leading to the second floor. There is also a room on the second floor of the tower.
The scientific library is in the gateway.

Orthodox chapel №1.

Located on the island Kotsyubinskoho, to the right of the entrance to the three-storied outbuilding I. It was built between 1847 and 1861 with the use of architectural elements in Byzantine architecture, classicism and neogothic style. In architecture it is more like a Catholic or Lutheran chapel. The author of the project is unknown. It is built of brick, in plan – hexagonal. Facades of each wall verge are ending with profiled cornice, the lower part of which in the kind cogs. Each of the five verges, different in size, is cut by one narrow lancet window, resembling a loophole, and in the sixth, southeastern – a doorway in the form of an arrow arch. Above the windows and doors there are arrow arches resting on Doric semi-columns placed at the corners of the building; above the columns – small cogs. The roof of building consists of six small pediments with round false windows, above which rises hexahedral tent, crowned with Fiala.
The interior of the building is devoided of any decor. The walls are plastered, the floor is lined with yellow clay bricks.
On October 26, 2019, the chapel of the Holy Supreme Apostles Peter and Paul, after whom the monastery on the island was once named, was consecrated. The consecration ceremony was performed by the rector of the Holy Transfiguration Church of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine in Korsun and Shevchenkivskiy, Archpriest Rostyslav Bilo, a deacon of the former Korsun-Shevchenkivskіy district.

Orthodox chapel №2.

It is located inside the prince’s court near the entrance gate. Built after 1860. The author of the project – is unknown.
The plan is an octagonal brick building, in the three-dimensional structure of which the features of early classicism, neogothic style and elements of lanceolate style can be seen. It is oriented from the south-west to the northeast. On larger areas of the walls there are narrow arrow windows (of which – two false windows), resembling loopholes, and doorways framed by stucco baguettes. Above the windows – page lancet form gables framed by profiled cornices, which have cogs in the bottom. On narrower planes – shallow niches with a three-bladed ending.
The roof is wooden with stingrays in the form of kokoshnyks, covered with galvanized sheet metal. In the center – a brick completition of the flue, covered with flux.
Inside the chapel has an original design of the vault in the form of a cross-shaped dome. Fragments of imitated wooden weaves are clearly preserved in the false windows.

Bath-house.

Built in north-eastern part of the Kotsyubinskiy island in the second half of the 1870s. When in neoromantic architecture was the so-called “brick style” appearea. The author of the project is unknown.
The angles of building are decorated with blades, and cornice by Brick cogs. Originally the windows of the building were of lancet shape. But in the 1960s. Their upper part was laid by bricks completations and today they are rectangular, although the arrow brick remained above them. Authentic lancet window remained at laid brick pediment of the south-west facade.
The building is rectangular in plan, consists of two was volumes of different times. Completion to the north-eastern part of it was carried out during the stay the Holiday Home on the island. There was arranged a boiler room for the bath. By the time north-eastern facade had two rectangular windows, but in 1979 in connection with the placement in this part of the building the boiler room of the Museum of History Korsun-Shevchenkivska battle, one of them replaced by the door, and the other – was laid.
The first internal planning is unknown. Currently, the location of the rooms is corridor. Until the 1970’s. There was a town bath in the building.
Now the is placed in the building in the completion Korsun-Shevchenkivskiy Office of Police Protection in Cherkasy region – Preserve there is a boiler.

You can read more about the palace ensemble in P.Ya. Stepenkina’s and T.Yu. Polyakova’s book “Palace ensemble on the granite islands. Series: Wonders of Cherkasy Region”. – Cherkasy: Publisher Yu.A., 2019.